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human placenta tissue, mouse placenta tissue
Note: suggested antigen retrieval with TE buffer pH 9.0; (*) Alternatively, antigen retrieval may be performed with citrate buffer pH 6.0
Store at -20°C. Stable for one year after shipment. Aliquoting is unnecessary for -20oC storage.
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), also known as macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), is a protein of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) superfamily that regulates inﬂammatory and apoptotic pathways in injured tissues and during disease processes. GDF15 is a stress-induced cytokine and associated with hypoxia, inﬂammation and oxidative stress, it is also released from endothelial cells after stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokines. GDF15 has been suggested as a target and biomarker for cardiovascular disease as it plays a cardioprotective role in the adult heart. GDF15 is highly expressed in the placenta. GDF15 is known to be involved in human embryo development and necessary for the maintenance of pregnancy. GDF15 is also produced by adipocytes in response to oxidative stress, a well-known factor associated with preeclampsia.